IOT sensors and wired sensors – connections

Industry 4.0: Connecting IOT sensors and wired sensors

Sensors in an Industry 4.0 system can be connected in various ways for data transfer from the machine to the computer that has the software for analyzing and taking action on the data. The computer can be on-premise, meaning within the physical boundaries of the organization, or on the Cloud. There are a variety of connection options depending for IOT sensors, sensors with wired LAN and sensors with WiFi LAN.


On-premise system
The sensors on machines send data to a server within your organization. The connection between sensors and the server can be wired or WiFi LAN. Users can see reports if they are on the same LAN, from within the shop floor.


Cloud based system
The sensors on machines send data to a Cloud server outside your organization. The connection between sensors on the machine can be direct IOT, via a mobile phone network, by wired LAN or WiFi LAN. Users can see reports from anywhere on earth, on the Web.


In the case of the direct IOT via the mobile phone network, there is no IT infrastructure required on the shop floor for data transfer. In the wired or WiFi LAN systems, you need LAN cabling, switches, access points, repeaters, etc. In the on-premise system, you additionally need a server within the organization.


Here are the layout for various systems of data transfer from the sensor to the server.


Cloud based systems

IOT direct to Cloud

Data transfer direct from IOT sensor to cloud
Data transfer direct from IOT sensor to Cloud via GSM

WiFi LAN

Data transfer from sensor to Cloud via WiFi LAN, without IOT sensors
Data transfer from sensor to Cloud via WiFi LAN

Wired LAN

Data transfer from sensor to Cloud via wired LAN, without IOT sensors
Data transfer from sensor to Cloud via wired LAN


On-premise server systems

WiFi LAN

Data transfer from sensor to on-premise server via WiFi LAN, without IOT sensors
Data transfer from sensor to on-premise server via WiFi LAN


Wired LAN

Data transfer from sensor to on-premise server via wired LAN, without IOT sensors
Data transfer from sensor to on-premise server via wired LAN


Requirements for various connection types
Yes means Required, No means Not required.

IOT sensors direct to Cloud serverWiFi LAN to Cloud serverWired LAN to Cloud serverWiFi LAN to on-premise serverWired LAN to on-premise server
Server in your organization with mirror server, RAIDNoNoNoYesYes
Infra for server:
room with physical protection, air-conditioning, 24/7 power
NoNoNoYesYes
IT personnel for server maintenanceNoNoNoYesYes
IT personnel for LAN maintenanceNoYesYesYesYes
LAN cabling in shop floorNoYesYesYesYes
Wired or WiFi LAN infra on shop floor:
switches, WiFi access points
NoYesYesYesYes

LEANworx Industry 4.0 system supports all the 5 modes of data transfer described above.


Etc

What is Proof and ABV on alco(hic!)hol bottles ?

Alcohol by Volume, or ABV, is the percentage of ethyl alcohol in the total volume. You’ll find ABV Alcohol by Volume also written as ABV, V/V, or alc/vol. All these mean the same thing – 40 ml of alcohol in every 100 ml of contents (the other 60 ml being mainly water): 40 % V/V, 40 % ABV, Alc. 40% by vol, 40 % vol, 40% alc/vol.

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is 3adeb7_ed4e89594f4f41c58625a106d7e429317Emv2-3.pngThis image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is 3adeb7_fb000ed1e03c472c9dc22ee8ed3e03cf7Emv2-3.png
This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is 3adeb7_67eb1aa953f44d9e9a396d310c880cf57Emv2-3.pngThis image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is 3adeb7_b97fc1e0a43447fbabd464720108e5a67Emv2-3.png
The confusing ways of indicating alcohol content

Proof is a more complicated and confusing term. The term ‘Proof’ originated in England 500 years ago. Rum was taxed at different rates depending on its alcohol content. The rum was tested by soaking a pellet of gunpowder in it. If the gunpowder could still burn after the soaking, the rum was rated as ‘above proof’ and taxed at a higher rate. Gunpowder would not burn after soaking in rum that had less than 57.15% ABV. So rum that contained this percentage of alcohol was said to be “100° (one hundred degrees) proof”.


To convert Proof to ABV, just multiply by 0.5715. See the label below, and note the year of manufacture. It’s 86 % ABV (that’s a crazy amount – the average whisky is about 40 %), which means 86 % alcohol and 14 % water. The label actually says “flammable”.

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is 3adeb7_0c549ccc08244970ad687fb4d9cab0747Emv2-3.pngThis image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is 3adeb7_367d2b8b4e0545b793b36304a78d5f847Emv2-3.pngThis image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is 3adeb7_b4653a66503847668b52de6876245ddc7Emv2-3.png

In the US, proof merely meant 2 x ABV. So if a bottle said 100 % Proof, it meant 50 % ABV.

Very confusing, this Proof business. Happily for us tipplers of today, Proof is obsolete.
ABV, which is easy to understand even with faculties dulled by alcohol, is the standard used the world over. Here’s a page that has ABV for various types of liquor.


About his blog from LEANworx: Plug-and-play Industry 4.0 system for MSMEs.



Share :

Leave a Reply