Industry 4.0: Connecting IOT sensors and wired sensors
Sensors in an Industry 4.0 system can be connected in various ways for data transfer from the machine to the computer that has the software for analyzing and taking action on the data. The computer can be on-premise, meaning within the physical boundaries of the organization, or on the Cloud. There are a variety of connection options depending for IOT sensors, sensors with wired LAN and sensors with WiFi LAN.
The sensors on machines send data to a server within your organization. The connection between sensors and the server can be wired or WiFi LAN. Users can see reports if they are on the same LAN, from within the shop floor.
Cloud based system
The sensors on machines send data to a Cloud server outside your organization. The connection between sensors on the machine can be direct IOT, via a mobile phone network, by wired LAN or WiFi LAN. Users can see reports from anywhere on earth, on the Web.
In the case of the direct IOT via the mobile phone network, there is no IT infrastructure required on the shop floor for data transfer. In the wired or WiFi LAN systems, you need LAN cabling, switches, access points, repeaters, etc. In the on-premise system, you additionally need a server within the organization.
Here are the layout for various systems of data transfer from the sensor to the server.
Cloud based systems
IOT direct to Cloud
On-premise server systems
Requirements for various connection types
Yes means Required, No means Not required.
|IOT sensors direct to Cloud server||WiFi LAN to Cloud server||Wired LAN to Cloud server||WiFi LAN to on-premise server||Wired LAN to on-premise server|
|Server in your organization with mirror server, RAID||No||No||No||Yes||Yes|
|Infra for server:|
room with physical protection, air-conditioning, 24/7 power
|IT personnel for server maintenance||No||No||No||Yes||Yes|
|IT personnel for LAN maintenance||No||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|LAN cabling in shop floor||No||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Wired or WiFi LAN infra on shop floor:|
switches, WiFi access points
LEANworx Industry 4.0 system supports all the 5 modes of data transfer described above.
What is Proof and ABV on alco(hic!)hol bottles ?
Alcohol by Volume, or ABV, is the percentage of ethyl alcohol in the total volume. You’ll find ABV Alcohol by Volume also written as ABV, V/V, or alc/vol. All these mean the same thing – 40 ml of alcohol in every 100 ml of contents (the other 60 ml being mainly water): 40 % V/V, 40 % ABV, Alc. 40% by vol, 40 % vol, 40% alc/vol.
Proof is a more complicated and confusing term. The term ‘Proof’ originated in England 500 years ago. Rum was taxed at different rates depending on its alcohol content. The rum was tested by soaking a pellet of gunpowder in it. If the gunpowder could still burn after the soaking, the rum was rated as ‘above proof’ and taxed at a higher rate. Gunpowder would not burn after soaking in rum that had less than 57.15% ABV. So rum that contained this percentage of alcohol was said to be “100° (one hundred degrees) proof”.
To convert Proof to ABV, just multiply by 0.5715. See the label below, and note the year of manufacture. It’s 86 % ABV (that’s a crazy amount – the average whisky is about 40 %), which means 86 % alcohol and 14 % water. The label actually says “flammable”.
In the US, proof merely meant 2 x ABV. So if a bottle said 100 % Proof, it meant 50 % ABV.
Very confusing, this Proof business. Happily for us tipplers of today, Proof is obsolete.
ABV, which is easy to understand even with faculties dulled by alcohol, is the standard used the world over. Here’s a page that has ABV for various types of liquor.